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Unresponsive and Unconscious Patient

2020 American Heart Association guidelines for CPR:

(The old method was A-B-C for airway, breathing and compressions. The new method is C-A-B for compressions, airway, and breathing.)

  • Initiate CPR for presumed cardiac arrest because the risk of harm to patients is low if they are not in cardiac arrest.

Compression Technique:#

  • Place the heel of the hand on the center of the patient’s chest. Put the other hand on top of the first with the fingers interlaced.
  • During manual CPR, rescuers should perform chest compressions to a depth of at least 2 inches, or 5 cm, for an average adult while avoiding excessive chest compression depths (greater than 2.4 inches, or 6 cm).
  • It is reasonable for rescuers to perform chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120/min .

Breathing Technique:#

Pinch closed the nose of the patient. Take a normal breath, cover the patient’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, or use a bag valve, and mask system (e.g. Ambu bag), and then give 2, 1-second breaths and watch for the chest to rise.


  1. Try to get the patient to respond.
  2. Alert emergency medical services (EMS)
  3. In the event of trauma, neck and back need to be kept in line.
  4. If the patient doesn’t respond, roll the patient on his or her back; simultaneously check for normal breathing (< 10 seconds), and the presence of a pulse.
  5. If no pulse, start chest compressions. Compress the chest at least 2 inches in adults and children, and 1.5 inches in infants.
  6. 30 compressions at a rate of 100-120 times/minute.
  7. Open the Airway with a head tilt and a chin lift.
  8. Provide 2 rescue Breaths.
  9. Continue 30 compressions, 2 breathes (30:2) until an automated external defibrilltor (AED) or EMS arrives.