2020 American Heart Association guidelines for CPR:
(The old method was A-B-C for airway, breathing and compressions. The new method is C-A-B for compressions, airway, and breathing.)
- Initiate CPR for presumed cardiac arrest because the risk of harm to patients is low if they are not in cardiac arrest.
- Place the heel of the hand on the center of the patient’s chest. Put the other hand on top of the first with the fingers interlaced.
- During manual CPR, rescuers should perform chest compressions to a depth of at least 2 inches, or 5 cm, for an average adult while avoiding excessive chest compression depths (greater than 2.4 inches, or 6 cm).
- It is reasonable for rescuers to perform chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120/min .
Pinch closed the nose of the patient. Take a normal breath, cover the patient’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, or use a bag valve, and mask system (e.g. Ambu bag), and then give 2, 1-second breaths and watch for the chest to rise.
- Try to get the patient to respond.
- Alert emergency medical services (EMS)
- In the event of trauma, neck and back need to be kept in line.
- If the patient doesn’t respond, roll the patient on his or her back; simultaneously check for normal breathing (< 10 seconds), and the presence of a pulse.
- If no pulse, start chest compressions. Compress the chest at least 2 inches in adults and children, and 1.5 inches in infants.
- 30 compressions at a rate of 100-120 times/minute.
- Open the Airway with a head tilt and a chin lift.
- Provide 2 rescue Breaths.
- Continue 30 compressions, 2 breathes (30:2) until an automated external defibrilltor (AED) or EMS arrives.