An A1C assay suggests a median plasma glucose level for the past three months. Patients with A1C levels above 9% need improved glycemic control and are at an increased risk of infection, poor wound healing, oral candidiasis, oral burning sensations, and aggressive periodontal disease.
- HbA1c – measures metabolic control over 2-3 months period; may suggest long-term adverse effects on the body’s ability to fight infections.
- Plasma glucose – measures present metabolic control; may suggest immediate adverse events due as hypo- or hyperglycemia.
- Normal adult range - A1c = <5.4%
- High risk/pre-diabetes - A1c = 5.4% - 6.4%
- Diabetes, confirmed by repeating the test on a different day - A1c = ≥6.5%
- 28.7 x A1C – 46.7 = eAG (mg/dL)
An estimated Average Glucose (eAG) calculator is available.
- Assay is well standardized
- Does not require fasting blood
- Not affected by day-to-day lifestyle changes
- Tightly correlated with risk of developing retinopathy
- Effect modifiers: uncommonly high doses of salicylates, vitamins C, E and SEVERE iron deficiency
- Easy, rapid, safe, validated
- Similar sensitivity (63%) and superior specificity compared to random plasma glucose (97% vs 87%)
- Medical Disorders
- Oral Health Care Considerations
- Classification and Definitions