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Social and Family History

Tobacco use#

Smoking impairs healing; promotes periodontal disease; is, in combination with alcohol, a risk factor for oral cancer; is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and lung cancer; and significantly increases the risk for heart attacks and stroke in women who also take oral contraceptives.

Alcohol use#

Excessive alcohol intake may increase bleeding tendencies; is associated with liver impairment; is associated with various psychiatric conditions; and, in combination with cigarette smoking, is a risk factor for oral cancer.

Illicit drug use#

Intravenous drug users are at an increased risk for bacterial endocarditis, hepatitis C virus infection, and HIV infection and may exhibit drug-seeking behavior.

Family history#

Many disorders are commonly found among family members and may put patients at an increased risk for developing specific diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, bleeding disorders, and cancer. Patients should be informed about these associations and seek medical advice when indicated.

Related Pages#