Commonly encountered psychiatric disorders are major depressive disorders (MDDs), and bipolar disorders (BDs).
MDD has a strong association with chronic illnesses, physical impairment after a stroke, and substance abuse.
Untreated bouts of MDD may last 6 months or longer and may undergo spontaneous remission.
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are usually treated throughout the life of the patient. Antipsychotic medications are used during the acute stages of the disease but may be discontinued when the patient is better controlled. Patients with BD have characteristic acute episodes of manic and depressive behavior. Recurrent episodes may be interspersed with normal mood behaviors (euthymia).
Common signs and symptoms:
- Agitation or anxiety, alteration in appetite, fatigue, feeling down, helplessness, hopelessness, anhedonia, irritability or anger, sadness, sense of guilt, thoughts of suicide
- Extreme mood swings from mania to depression
- Examples: euphoria, grandiosity, restlessness, loud, rapid speech patterns, frustration, irritability, anger, rage, auditory hallucinations, delusions, dysphoria, anhedonia, guilt, suicidal thoughts
MDDs are treated with antidepressants and psychotherapy. In severe cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used.
BDs are treated with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. Cases refractory to medication may be treated with ECT.
Most of the medications mentioned above are associated with oral side effects.
- Oral Health Care Considerations