Thyroid disorders can be broadly subdivided into hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
Some of these disorders are autoimmune, such as Graves' disease and Hashimoto’s disease, also known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but the etiology is not always evident.
Each condition is defined by characteristic signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and laboratory studies.
The best test to determine thyroid function is a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assay.
Low TSH suggests hyperthyroidism, while high TSH levels suggest hypothyroidism.
Both hypo- and hyperthyroid states may influence dental treatment modifications.
Of particular concern is an uncontrolled hyperthyroid state, where the patient is at high risk for experiencing adverse effects during dental treatment.
A stable thyroid state is called euthyroid.
Although a patient may report having a stable thyroid state, this may change rapidly. Dental providers need to recognize the more common signs and symptoms associated with a patient’s condition.
Synthetic preparations of thyroid hormones (T4 [Synthroid] and T3 [Leotrix]) are used to treat hypothyroid disorders.
The most common medications for hyperthyroidism are propylthiouracil preparations, in conjunction with medications used to treat comorbid conditions such as tachycardia.
Antihyperthyroid agents may induce mild leukopenia.
- Medical Disorders
- Oral Health Care Considerations
- Laboratory Values